Breast cancer in the thai cohort study an exploratory case-control analysis

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  2. Type II Diabetes, Obesity, and Breast Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort
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Advanced search. Journal Nutrition and Cancer Volume 64, - Issue 3. Submit an article Journal homepage. Original Articles. Pages Received 24 Feb Article Metrics Views. Article metrics information Disclaimer for citing articles. Login options Log in. Username Password Forgot password? For analysis we used Stata version Individuals with missing data for analyses presented here were excluded so totals vary a little according to the information available. Before multivariate analyses were conducted, independent variables were tested for collinearity; no correlation coefficient exceeded 0.

Notably, socioeconomic variables income, education, and household assets had correlation coefficients lower than 0. Informed written consent was obtained from all participants. There were 87, cohort members Table 1 and Three age groups ranged from 15 to 29 years There were lower proportions of males among the younger group and lower proportions of females among the older group.

Among cohort members, There was a clear positive trend between age and income. Three groups of lifecourse urbanization were analysed: lifetime rural residents Regarding health behaviors, 9. Both health risk behaviors increase with age Daily consumption of carbonated beverage was reported by 7. Not being breastfed as a child was reported by 7.

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Parental history of a father with lower than primary education was 4. A similar trend was noticed for less than primary education for mothers of younger vs. Among cohort members, 3. The older group consistently reported less than 20 teeth across all other characteristics included in Table 2 where age was the most prominent factor associated with less than 20 teeth.

Type II Diabetes, Obesity, and Breast Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort

Those in the lowest income group were more likely to report less than 20 teeth compared to the highest income group and this trend increased with age. Across all age groups, lifetime urban residents were more likely than lifetime rural residents to report less than 20 teeth overall 4. Self-reported less than 20 teeth was more common among current regular smokers 4. Having a history of not being breastfed as a child was associated with less than 20 teeth 4.

Those with father's education of less than primary level were also more likely to have less than 20 teeth 4. Bivariate and multivariate results of determinants for self-reported number of teeth are shown in Table 3. To our knowledge, this is the first large scale study that assessed the factors associated with self-reported number of teeth among Thai adults. Key findings of our study were being female, of older age, low income, lower education, and being a lifetime urban resident were all strongly associated with less than 20 teeth.

Breast cancer in the Thai Cohort Study: An exploratory case-control analysis

In relation to urban or rural residence, we cannot be sure if the self-reported number of teeth reflects differential access to tooth extraction. Formal access to dental care is better in cities but tooth extraction for pain relief is more common in rural areas and amongst lower income. Our study is consistent with previous studies on the role of health-related behaviors, especially tobacco smoking on self-reported number of teeth.

Our findings that consumption of soft drink or carbonated beverage was strongly associated with self-reported number of teeth among our cohort, confirms previous studies [ 26 — 28 ]. Undesirable oral health behaviors adopted in early years are likely to be sustained throughout life and together with cumulative effects of exposure to other risk factors can lead to poor oral health outcomes in later life.

Our study also showed the influence of certain lifecourse factors such as a history of breastfeeding and maternal education on self-reported number of teeth. A study in New Zealand demonstrated that childhood circumstances have a major influence on oral health in adulthood [ 9 , 10 ]. After controlling for childhood oral health, those who were disadvantaged at the age of 5 years had higher levels of dental caries and periodontal disease and were more likely to experience premature tooth loss in adulthood.

Hence, the promotion of healthy childhoods is important public health interventions to increase tooth retention in middle and older age. Thailand has implemented a Universal Coverage Scheme UCS for healthcare since and basic oral healthcare was part of the package [ 29 , 30 ]. However, a recent study based on over 30, Thai adults aged 15 and 75 years from nationally representative surveys reported that substantial socioeconomic inequality in self-reported oral health status still persisted after the UCS [ 31 , 32 ].

It should be noted that this representative study was carried out only two years after the UCS reached the whole Thai population, meaning that there may not be sufficient time for measurable improvement on oral health status. It is important to take into account the possible limitations of our study. For example, our cohort members are university educated and therefore results may not be generalized to the Thai population at large.

In addition, there could be some possible recall bias in reporting past behaviors, such as being breastfed as a child. Our data presented here were derived from the cross-sectional baseline questionnaire of our study. Longitudinal data will provide more insight into determinants of self-reported number of teeth.

Although, this study relied on self-reported number of teeth it should be noted that this simple measurement is now used in an increasing number of studies and does capture important information on oral health morbidity [ 33 ]. Further studies should emphasise some aspects of positive outcomes of oral health and oral health-related quality of life to fill gaps in information concerning oral health outcomes [ 34 ]. Major challenges of the future will be to translate knowledge and experiences of oral health promotion and disease prevention into action programs in Thailand.

For instance, dental health should be integrated into public health programs targeting chronic diseases. Sustainable oral health improvements in Thailand require an approach which addresses the underlying determinants of oral health. Many of those determinants have been noted in this study, including sociodemographic risk factors and adverse health behaviours. Proteins were explored by immunohistochemistry. No differences were seen between mRNA level of other the genes analysed and prognosis. Immunohistochemical detection of this protein in ECs has low sensitivity and should be improved for future clinical applications. Cholesterol import and steroidogenesis are biosignatures for gastric cancer patient survival. Androgens, estrogens, progesterone and related signals are reported to be involved in the pathology of gastric cancer. However, varied conclusions exist based on serum hormone levels, receptor expressions, and in vitro or in vivo studies. Analyzing steroidogenic lipidome with a hazard ratio score algorithm found that CYP19A1 is the progression confounder in surgery, HER2 positive or negative patients.

Finally, in the other patient cohort from TCGA, CYP19A1 was expressed higher in the tumor compared to that in normal counterparts, and also promoted progression.

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Lastly, exemestrane type II aromatase inhibitor dramatically suppress GCa cell growth in pharmacological tolerable doses in vitro. This work depicts a route-specific outside-in delivery of cholesterol to promote disease progression, implicating a host-to-tumor macroenvironmental regulation. The result indicating lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol entry and steroidogenesis are GCa progression biosignatures. And the exemestrane clinical trial in GCa patients of unmet medical needs is suggested.

Pathol Oncol Res. The p-trend value evaluated for HSD17B1 rs was 0. The p-value was 0. Moreover, we observed a contribution of the rs SNP to histological grade G3 status. Related: Cervical Cancer. The human enzyme's structure and biological function have thus been studied extensively in the last two decades. In humans, the enzyme is expressed in placenta, ovary, endometrium and breast.

Its dual function in estrogen activation and androgen inactivation has been revealed in molecular and breast cancer cell levels, significantly stimulating the proliferation of such cells. The enzyme's overexpression in breast cancer was demonstrated by clinical samples. Unfortunately, through decades of studies, there is still no drug using the enzyme's inhibitors available.

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This is due to the difficulty to get rid of the estrogenic activity of its inhibitors, which are mostly estrogen analogues. New non-steroid inhibitors for the enzyme provide new hope for non-estrogenic inhibitors of the enzyme. Related: Cancer Prevention and Risk Reduction. Twin Res Hum Genet. Hydroxysteroid beta dehydrogenase 1 HSD17B1 plays a central role in sex steroid hormone metabolism. HSD17B1 polymorphic variants may contribute to cancer susceptibility. Numerous investigations have been conducted to assess the association between HSD17B1 SerGly polymorphism and cancer risk in multiple ethnicities, yet these have produced inconsistent results.

We therefore performed this comprehensive meta-analysis to attempt to provide a quality assessment of the association of interest. After a systematic literature search of several major public databases, 20 studies involving 29, cases and 36, controls were included in this meta-analysis.

Breast Cancer, Eliminating Unnecessary Deaths in Thailand

In addition, no association was observed in the stratified analysis for breast cancer studies by source of control, ethnicity and quality score. These findings suggested that the HSD17B1 SerGly polymorphism might confer genetic cancer susceptibility in an ethnic-dependent manner, especially among Caucasians. Well-designed, large-scale studies are warranted to validate these findings.


Association between HSD17B1 rs polymorphisms and the risk of uterine diseases: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Pathol. The aim of this study was to evaluate the HSD17B1 gene polymorphisms in the risks of endometrial cancer, endometriosis and uterine leiomyoma by meta-analysis. The pooled ORs were performed using the Revman 5.

The result showed no significant association between HSD17B1 rs gene polymorphisms and risks of endometrial cancer AA vs. No association was found in a subgroup analysis based on Asian ethnicity for endometriosis. This meta-analysis suggested that HSD17B1 rs polymorphisms were not associated with the risks of endometrial cancer and endometriosis.